Climate Observations

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Where does the climate data come from?

     The climatology at the land surface (daily or hourly precipitation, minimum and maximum temperature, and wind fields) are required for mutliple purpsoes. They are required as  “forcings” for the models.The challenge is how to develop consistent climate data records.

     Ideally, such data can be provided by long time series of direct measurements from meteorological stations, operated by the service INEMET. But available stations and their records for the region are sparse. The primary information used for the modeling was derived from a combination of global sources.

There are two types of met stations available: "Conventional" (in cyan) and "Automatic" (in yellow). The dates next to the stations are the beginning dates for data availability.  Conventional stations have data going back much further. The stations with the black dots are  without available data, yet.

    

     For the Jucu and Santa Maria da Vitoria,  data were acquired directly from INMET, and José Geraldo Ferreira da Silva (INCAPER) kindly compiled a series of his data records, and provided them to the project team. The data include temperature (Tmax, Tmin), relative humidity, and precipitation at 0900, 1500, and 2100, for the period 2009-2013. The stations include:

 

 

 

INMET (green) and INCAPER (blue) met stations. Note that the stations are outside of the modeled areas. From the daily INMET data, precipitation, Tmin, Tmax and Wind were used in VIC  to  generate the sub-daily (3hr) forcings i.e. P, Tair, RH (%), incoming shortwave and incoming longwave radiation and wind. The data were then put into DHSVM as STATION i.e. point data and DHSVM used the Cressman interpolation to get the forcings for the basins.